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PCOS and PCOD : Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

PCOS and PCOD : Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) are two common endocrine disorders affecting women worldwide. Both conditions are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion. However, it’s important to understand that PCOS and PCOD are not the same, despite sharing similarities. In this blog post, we will explore the differences between PCOS and PCOD, delve into their causes, and discuss potential treatment options.


PCOD: Polycystic Ovarian Disease


Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD), also known as polycystic ovaries (PCO), is a condition characterized by the presence of multiple cysts on the ovaries. It is primarily an ovarian condition that can disrupt the normal hormonal balance. PCOD is often associated with an irregular menstrual cycle, excessive hair growth, acne, and obesity. It is typically diagnosed through ultrasound imaging, which reveals the presence of cysts on the ovaries.


PCOS: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a more complex disorder that involves not only the ovaries but also the hormonal and metabolic systems of the body. PCOS is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts on the ovaries, irregular periods, elevated levels of androgen hormones (such as testosterone), and insulin resistance. It is a systemic condition that affects various aspects of a woman’s health, including fertility, weight management, and cardiovascular health.


Causes of PCOD and PCOS:


The exact causes of PCOD and PCOS are not fully understood, but they are believed to involve a combination of genetic, hormonal, and lifestyle factors. Some of the potential causes include:


  • • Insulin Resistance: Insulin resistance is a condition where the body’s cells become less responsive to the hormone insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance is closely linked to PCOS and plays a role in disrupting hormonal balance.


  • • Hormonal Imbalance: Both PCOD and PCOS involve hormonal imbalances, particularly elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone. This imbalance affects the normal functioning of the ovaries, leading to the formation of cysts.


  • • Genetic Factors: There is evidence to suggest that PCOD and PCOS may have a genetic component, as they tend to run in families. Certain genetic variations may predispose individuals to develop these conditions.


  • • Lifestyle Factors: Sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and obesity are known to contribute to the development and exacerbation of PCOD and PCOS. These factors can worsen insulin resistance and hormonal imbalances.


 Symptoms of PCOD & PCOS

  • Irregular menstruation (Oligomenorrhea)

  • Skipped or absence of menstruation (Amenorrhea)

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (Menorrhagia)

  • Excessive Hair growth (face, body – including on back, belly, and chest)

  • Acne (face, chest, and upper back)

  • Weight gain

  • Hair loss (hair on the scalp gets thinner and falls out)

  • Skin darkening (Neck, in the groin, and under the breasts)

If you have all these symptoms or one of these symptoms you should consult the health care professional for better treatment and medical advice.


While there is no cure for PCOD and PCOS, several treatment options can help manage the symptoms and improve overall well-being. The treatment approach may vary depending on the individual’s specific symptoms and goals. Some common treatment options include:


  • • Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthy lifestyle is key to managing PCOD and PCOS. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, weight management, and stress reduction techniques can help improve insulin sensitivity and hormonal balance.


  • • Medications: Hormonal birth control pills are commonly prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and control acne. Other medications, such as anti-androgens and insulin-sensitizing agents, may also be prescribed based on individual needs.


  • • Fertility Treatments:For women trying to conceive, fertility treatments such as ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be recommended. These treatments can help stimulate ovulation and increase the chances of pregnancy.


  • • Management of Specific Symptoms: Treatment plans may also involve managing specific



Can women get pregnant, who are diagnosed with PCOD and PCOS?
Yes, women with PCOD can get pregnant and complete pregnancy, better need regular follow-up consultations to avoid future complications.

But in the case of PCOS, you can get pregnant, need to maintain a certain weight, and have regular checkups to prevent miscarriage.


PCOS and PCOD are controllable and curable to an extent, but ignoring the symptoms can cause pregnancy issues in the future and other health issues, better consult a gynecologist, a dietitian and get a tailored treatment plan for you.


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